Replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat modulates peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression and pathways related to cardiovascular disease risk using a whole transcriptome approach
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionMolecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2021, 65 (24), . 10.1002/mnfr.202100633
Scope The aim of this study is to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of replacing dietary saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using a whole transcriptome approach. Methods and Results Healthy subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia (n = 115) are randomly assigned to a control diet (C-diet) group or an experimental diet (Ex-diet) group receiving comparable food items with different fatty acid composition for 8 weeks. RNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention is analyzed by microarray technology (n = 95). By use of a linear regression model (n = 92), 14 gene transcripts are differentially altered in the Ex-diet group compared to the C-diet group. These include transcripts related to vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, low-density lipoprotein receptor folding, and regulation of blood pressure. Furthermore, pathways mainly related to immune response and inflammation, signal transduction, development, and cytoskeleton remodeling, gene expression and protein function, are differentially enriched between the groups. Conclusion Replacing dietary SFA with PUFA for 8 weeks modulates PBMC gene expression and pathways related to CVD risk in healthy subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia.