Reforming mixed operation schedule for electric buses and traditional fuel buses by an optimal framework
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Bus scheduling plays a significant role in public transportation and supports the sustainable development of transportation systems. Challenges are beginning to appear with the newly emerging electric buses (EBs), as scheduling changes due to fleet composition make traditional fixed timetables no longer able to satisfy operational needs. Moreover, the fixed-trip time hypothesis has been inappropriate for large cities due to the variety of urban traffic statuses. This paper proposes an optimal framework for reforming the mixed operation schedule for electric buses and traditional fuel buses under stochastic trip times. Based on the primary grouping genetic algorithm (GGA), a straightforward framework with a Monte Carlo simulation is presented to optimize the scheduling scheme. Case studies based on the operating environment and service trips of real bus lines in Beijing are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model by considering both the composition of fleet types and time stochasticity. Additionally, the impacts of stochasticity, fleet composition, government subsidies and cost factors on operational costs are investigated. Considering stochastic trip times, the achieved scheduling strategies can provide the optimal proportion of electric and traditional fuel buses and make a crucial impact on operational costs.