Voksne i grunnskole og videregående opplæring
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- NIBR notat 
In Norway, adults who need primary and lower secondary education have a statutory right to such education. Adults also have a statutory right to upper secondary education. This applies to adults who have not already completed an upper secondary education. The right was enacted in 2000 for adults requiring upper secondary education and in 2002 for adults in need of primary education and lower secondary education. This report is concerned with primary and secondary education for adults. The issues discussed are: (1) What characterises participants in adult education? (2) What are the characteristics of the educational courses? (3) To what extent do participants complete the courses, and what is the effect of completed adult courses with regard to further study and its significance for the labour market? (4) How do participants and staff engaged in adult education evaluate the courses offered? Both quantitative and qualitative data are the sources to the response to these questions. The first three questions are essentially answered with the assistance of quantitative data. The first source of this data us the participant register which contains information concerning, gender, age, immigrant background and completed (or non-completed) adult education based on a sample of participants in adult education in the school years 2004-05 until 2008-09 – in total, five academic years. We have one register of adults in primary and lower secondary education, and one of adult participants in upper secondary education. The participant registers are used to answer the first question. Secondly, we have carried out a survey of central persons in adult education in selected municipalities (primary and lower secondary education) and in the county councils (upper secondary education). These surveys are used to answer the second research question. Thirdly, we use the longitudinal registers, which contain information on participants in the participants’ register of those who have completed primary and lower secondary education and upper secondary education for adults respectively. For these participants we also have information on adult education – commenced and competed –up to the school year 2010-11. In addition, we have information on income and social benefits received following completion of adult education. The longitudinal registers are used to provide information on the third question. Qualitative data is essentially used to illuminate the fourth research question. We have visited educational establishments in four municipalities and in four county councils. Here, we have observed lessons and carried out interviews with participants and staff. Characteristics of the participants The study shows that immigrants comprise a steadily increasing proportion of participants in adult education. Analyses of the participants’ register show that 96% of adult participants in primary and lower secondary education, and 30% in upper secondary education had an immigrant background in the school year 2008-09. These proportions had increased from 85% and 24% respectively in 2004-05. In the qualitative interviews it emerges that the increased proportion of immigrants contributes to a large variation in the participants’ Norwegian language skills and academic qualifications – something which was considered as a challenge in the education. It is particularly the participants’ lack of language skills which was seen to be problematic. The study further shows that there are more women than men in adult education. The mean age in primary and lower secondary education has declined from 28 years in 2004-05, to 26 year in 2008-09. In upper secondary education for adults, the mean age of participants was 36–37 throughout the same period. The report also includes adults with a right to special education. Somewhat less than a half of all participants in primary and lower secondary education for adults have special education. This right is given either on the basis of general learning difficulties, or due to acquired learning problems. This report is addressing the first group of adults; adults in the special education due to general learning difficulties. Analyses of the participants’ register show an increase in the number immigrants. In 2008-09, immigrants accounted for 22% of participants in special education, but only 5% in 2004-05. There are as many women as men. Their mean age differs between 36–38 years. Characteristics of the courses offered The survey revealed that the municipalities and county councils frequently provide information of the courses available in the municipalities and county councils to potential participants. Nine of ten municipalities, and all county councils provide this information. It is normal that such information is provided on the municipalities/county councils’ websites and also in brochures. Many also point out that potential participants are informed orally, for example in conversation at the local employment offices or in connection with participation in Norwegian language courses. It is, however, relatively seldom that written information is given in other languages than Norwegian. Considering that the majority of potential participants have an immigrant background and assumedly limited knowledge of Norwegian, there is a potential here for improvement by making information available in different languages. Even though many municipalities and county councils state that information on adult education is available, fewer report that there is a separate programme for informing adults of their rights to education. Our survey shows that such a programme exists in 40 per cent of the municipalities and 60 per cent of the county councils. The survey shows that primary and lower secondary education for adults essentially takes place during the daytime, and virtually no schools have net-based education. At the level of upper secondary education it is far more normal that adult education courses are held in the evenings as well as during the day. Further, we find that about a half of the courses related to entry into higher education are offered as net-based courses. Net-based vocational courses are less common. The results suggest that the teachers are well qualified. Teachers in the primary and lower secondary education courses are largely educated at bachelor level. In upper secondary education a number of teachers have a master degree. The results suggest, however, that few teachers have attended courses aimed at teaching adults with an immigrant background including further training in adult pedagogy, multi-cultural pedagogy, or Norwegian as a second language. Course completion and transition to further studies or the labour market Adults in primary and lower secondary education: The study reveals that adults completing the primary and lower secondary education courses have increased in the period under study. While approximately one third completed their studies in 2004-05, this had increased to a half in 2008-09. In the survey, the municipalities indicate that participants use two to three years to complete primary and lower secondary education. More men than women complete the courses, and the completion level is highest in the younger age groups. The main reason that immigrants do not complete these courses, according to the municipalities, is a weak academic and linguistic basis. Relatively few completed the courses in special education, although even here there was an increase in the period 2004-05 until 2008-09. Approximately a half of those completing primary and lower secondary education continue to upper secondary education. An analysis of the longitudinal register shows that transfer to upper secondary education is most prevalent within the first two years of having completed primary and lower secondary education. Continuance is more frequent among younger than older persons. In the report we have examined the adults’ labour market situation after completed primary and lower secondary education. Only 15 per cent of participants seem to have a regular link to the labour market. The results suggest that there are relatively small differences in the proportion having a regular link to working life among participants who continue in education compared to those who do not continue. Adults in upper secondary education: The study shows that about one half of all participants in upper secondary education complete the course. The level of completion was highest in health and social studies. It is somewhat higher for women than for men, and for participants with an immigrant background compared to ethnic Norwegians. Analyses from the longitudinal register show that 40 per cent of participants qualifying for higher education proceed to higher education. Understandably, the percentage is somewhat lower for those qualifying for vocational courses. The likelihood for a student proceeding into higher education is greatest where this is undertaken relatively soon after qualifying, and is also greater for women than for men. Almost two-thirds of participants who completed upper secondary education had an income which indicates a regular link with working life. The proportion was naturally higher for participants who had completed the vocational course. The reason that adults drop out of upper secondary education is, according to the staff in the county councils, linked to the participants’ academic and language problems. Further, the loss in salary and work obligations are seen as a more important reason for dropping out from the vocational course than courses qualifying for higher education. Many county councils report on difficulties in attaining apprenticeships. This problem was considered to be greatest for courses in technology and industrial production. Participants’ and staff’s evaluations of adult education The main topic in the qualitative part of this study is addressing the increasing numbers of immigrants in adult education. In interviews with the teachers and adult education staff, it is first and foremost the lack of skills in the Norwegian language which are considered to be a problem preventing the completion of studies. This was particularly the case in adult primary and lower secondary education but was also a topic in upper secondary education for adults. Several teachers stated that it would be easier to organize the courses if the minimum requirement in the language had been determined at level 2 in the standard Norwegian language test for immigrants for those entering primary and lower secondary education courses, and level 3 for those undertaking upper secondary education courses. We also encountered adult participants who mentioned the necessity of fluency in Norwegian in order to complete the course. Little contact with adults outside the school such that they could improve their Norwegian, was assessed as a problem by participants in primary and lower secondary education. In addition to poor skills in Norwegian, the teachers mentioned that the participants sometimes leave school to attend courses offered by the Norwegian Labour and Welfare administration (NAV). If they did not attend the course offered by NAV their benefits from NAV would be stopped. Through interviews with participants and teachers, it emerged that participants in the primary and lower secondary course were frequently dissatisfied with the rate of progress, and that they were impatient to proceed further with their education plans. They wished to complete the primary and lower secondary courses sooner than the planned programme, while the view of the teachers was that participants’ ambitions for rapid completion were too high. More applicants to the upper secondary education are accepted than the number of places available. Teachers and other employees in the adult education told us that participants frequently over-estimate their own capacity and learning ability, and that this resulted in a degree of dropout. Adult participants in upper secondary education are generally satisfied with the courses offered and consider that teaching staff are skilled. The majority of participants had acquired information on the course through friends and acquaintances; some had searched for information on the web. In all the schools we visited, the lack of apprenticeships was a regular theme. It emerged that it is particularly difficult for participants with an immigrant background to acquire an apprenticeship.I Norge har alle voksne, som har behov for opplæring for å få grunnskolevitnemål, en lovfestet rett til slik opplæring. Voksne harogså rett til videregående opplæring dersom en ikke har fått dette tidligere. Første del av denne rapporten handler om voksne igrunnskoleopplæring, mens andre del handler om voksne i videregående opplæring. Problemstillingene i begge disse delene er: (1) Hva kjennetegner deltakerne i voksenopplæringen? (2) Hva kjennetegner opplæringstilbudene? (3) I hvilken grad fullfører deltakerne opplæringen, og hva er utbytte av fullført voksenopplæring for videre studier og arbeidsmarkedstilknytning? (4) Hvordan vurderer deltakere og ansatte i voksenopplæringen tilbudet som gis? Vi bruker både kvantitative og kvalitative datakilder for å svare på disse spørsmålene. Oppdragsgiver er Utdanningsdirektoratet og Vox.