Brukerundersøkelse i barnevernsinstitusjonene.
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- NIBR notat 
This report presents results from the first countrywide questionnaire study including users of residential care ever conducted in Norway. 436 boys and girls from 114 residential child welfare units participated during the autumn of 2005, a response rate of 57 %. All were in long-term placement, and they were aged 13 and older. In addition the directors of the care units filled in a separate questionnaire, and twelve youth from seven different units were interviewed in order to supplement and further elucidate important themes from the questionnaires. As part of the preparation to the study a knowledge status was done, in particular concerning young peopleö‚'s rights in residential care. The starting point of the study was lack of knowledge about how rights are honoured in residential care according to the young people themselves, and to what extent they think that the way the staff organize their working shifts influences the quality of the care and treatment they receive. Based on this four research questions were formulated: - To what extent are the rights of the young people honoured while they remain in residential care? - Do young people become victims of various kinds of abuse while in residential care? - How do young people themselves describe their daily lives inside and outside the care unit? - Is there a relationship between the quality of care and treatment and the ways the staff organize their working shifts? The results from the questionnaire study and the interviews show a many-faceted picture of the young people and the ways they experienced their care situation. We have received many positive messages - for instance, a clear majority of the respondents knew why they were in care, they felt safe in their residential unit, they trusted one, several or all the adults working there, they found the staff congenial, and they received help with school work as well as leisure activities. On the other hand, a little below half of the young people said they did not know how long they were going to remain in care, they did not know of any plan for their stay, and no more than just below half answered that they had been informed about their rights while in the residential unit. Based on this it is a challenge to develop further approaches to informing young people about their rights in ways that are both relevant and clear to those involved. An additional challenge is to include the question of honouring young peopleö‚'s rights as an integral part of the daily life in the institutions. The State Inspectorate plays a particularly important role because this body is responsible for controlling the practices of the residential units, and the ways the young peopleö‚'s rights are safeguarded. Further, the Inspectorate is supposed to be easy to contact by the young people if they have any complaints. Here again the results were many-faceted - while seven out of ten responded that they knew that the Inspectorate had visited their care unit, less than half stated that they had been informed about the role of the Inspectorate or had been told how to contact them on their own initiative. While a majority thought that contact with the Inspectorate had been a positive experience, an alarmingly large minority were far less positive. Based on this there seems to exist a need to look for ways of organizing the inspections in ways that match the young people and their need better. Our main impression from the survey is that few of the young people experienced the residential unit as closed off from the surrounding world. A large majority responded that they had several friends, both within and outside the institution. Nine out of ten also mentioned that adults helped them to participate in leisure activities. In addition most felt that the adults cooperated with the schools they attended. Further, surprisingly many seemed to look forward to going to school, both because they met friends there and because of the school work. Our data do not make it possible to conclude that the respondents seemed to prefer some types of shift organization more than others. During later years several hearings have been conducted concerning Norwegian residential care, and several instances of abuse have been uncovered. Although most of these seem to have taken place in the past, we wanted to ask the young people about their experiences with being bullied, hit or kicked, or sexually abused while in residential care. Just below 10 % responded that they had been bullied by one or more grown-ups working in the residential unit, 7,5 % responded that they had been hit or kicked, and just below 3 % (12) reported instances of sexual abuse. It was up to the young people themselves to define the content of these questions, however, and we did not ask them to exemplify or concretise what they meant by their responses. Thus, we do not know what the responses really express. Nor can we argue that different types of abuse are prevalent in todayö‚'s residential care - particularly not with reference to all the positive assessments that were given by the respondents. At the same time we were sufficiently alarmed to decide to inform the Ministry of Children and Equality as soon as the data were available. On their part the Ministry took a series of initiatives, which are described in a letter that is included in this report. We offer the following recommendations: The Ministry of Children and Equality and the Directorate for Children, Youth and Families should initiate regular user surveys in the residential units, as part of the ongoing quality control of the work being done. Research-based development should be initiated in order to match the Inspectorateö‚'s work better to the needs of young people in residential care. In addition we recommend process evaluation, and separate research aimed at analysing how the Inspectorate fulfils its role with regard to young people in residential care. Research-based development should be initiated in order to achieve an overall control with the schooling young people in residential care receive. Young people with antisocial problems seem to be a particularly vulnerable and challenging group. We suggest research-based development aimed at residential units with a large proportion of these young people, in order to develop best practices with regard to safeguarding their rights in meaningful ways for them, making this part of the daily life of the units, and in order to achieve their well-being to as large an extent as possible.I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra den første landsomfattende brukerundersøkelsen blant ungdom i barnevernsinstitusjoner. Et sentralt spørsmål var om ungdommene vet hvilke rettigheter de har når de er plassert på barnevernsinstitusjon, og i hvilken grad beboernes integritet og rettigheter ivaretas. Videre så vi på hvordan ungdommene opplevde det sosiale livet i og utenfor institusjonen, og hva slags kontakt de hadde med de ansatte. Vi undersøkte også i hvilken grad ungdommene vurderte at det var en sammenheng mellom kvaliteten på oppholdet og de ulike arbeidstidsordningene som ble praktisert. 436 ungdommer fra i alt 114 institusjoner fylte ut spørreskjemaer høsten 2005. De var alle langtidsplassert og var fra 13 år og oppover. I tillegg besvarte lederne på institusjonene egne spørreskjemaer, og tolv ungdommer fra sju forskjellige institusjoner ble intervjuet for å supplere og utdype viktige temaer fra spørreskjemaene. I tillegg er det utarbeidet en kunnskapsstatus. Resultatene viser et sammensatt bilde. På mange måter har vi fått positive innblikk: Et klart flertall av ungdommene visste hvorfor de oppholdt seg på institusjonen, de fant de ansatte hyggelige, og de fikk bistand til å delta i fritidsaktiviteter og gjennomføre skolearbeid. Samtidig ble vi presentert for utfordringer - ungdom på barnevernsinstitusjon er en heterogen gruppe, med ulik bakgrunn og ulike problemer, de opplever de ansatte ulikt og reagerer ulikt på regler og praksis ved institusjonene. Noen få rapporterte også at de var utsatt for ulike typer overgrep på institusjonene de var på. Heidi Gautun er Dr.Polit. og forsker ved Fafo mens Karin Sasaoka og Cay Gjerustad er henholdsvis cand.polit. og cand.paed. og forskere ved NOVA.