Life satisfaction among individuals with opioid use disorder receiving extended-release naltrexone: A 12-week randomized controlled trial and a 36-week follow-up
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2021, . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108656
Introduction: Life satisfaction (LS) in opioid-dependent individuals is lower than in the general population. This study aimed to explore changes in LS during short- and long-term treatment with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX). Methods: This open-label 12-week clinical trial randomized 159 participants to either monthly XR-NTX or daily buprenorphine-naloxone (BP-NLX). In a subsequent 36-week follow-up study on XR-NTX, participants either continued or switched to XR-NTX. The study collected data on the Temporary Satisfaction with Life (TSWL) and illicit opioid use every fourth week. The research team assessed changes in TSWL by a linear mixed model and growth mixture model. The study assessed relationship between opioid use and TSWL by a linear mixed model. Results: Change in LS differed significantly between the groups in both study periods. TSWL scores were significantly higher in the XR-NTX group at week 4 (p = 0.013) and week 8 (p = 0.002). In the follow-up period, the groups were significantly different only at week 16 (p = 0.031) and week 48 (p = 0.025), with the higher TSWL scores in the XR-NTX continued group. Increase in opioid use by one day was associated with a 0.12 point lower mean TSWL score. Both study periods identified groups with low and high LS levels. In the trial period, the TSWL scores exhibited a significant increase from baseline to week 12 in both groups, p < .001 and p = 0.011 in the low and high LS group, respectively. In the follow-up period, the TSWL scores exhibited a significant increase from week 16 to week 48 (p = 0.003) in the high LS group, while the low LS group showed persistently lower values throughout that period. Conclusions: XR-NTX treatment given once monthly is associated with higher LS, as measured by TSWL, compared to daily use of BP-NLX. The majority of the participants had relatively low TSWL scores and did not report any change in TSWL during longer-term treatment. The study found a significant association between more frequent illicit opioid use and a low or decreased LS during follow-up.