The effect of toll-like receptor ligands on energy metabolism and myokine expression and secretion in cultured human skeletal muscle cells
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionScientific Reports. 2021, 11 (1), . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03730-w
Skeletal muscle plays an important role in glycaemic control and metabolic homeostasis, making it a tissue of interest with respect to type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to determine if ligands of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) could have an impact on energy metabolism and myokine expression and secretion in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. The myotubes expressed mRNA for TLRs 1–6. TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR6 ligands (TLRLs) increased glucose metabolism. Furthermore, TLR4L and TLR5L increased oleic acid metabolism. The metabolic effects of TLRLs were not evident until after at least 24 h pre-incubation of the cells and here the metabolic effects were more evident for the metabolism of glucose than oleic acid, with a shift towards effects on oleic acid metabolism after chronic exposure (168 h). However, the stimulatory effect of TLRLs on myokine expression and secretion was detected after only 6 h, where TLR3-6L stimulated secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6). TLR5L also increased secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), while TLR6L also increased secretion of granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Pre-incubation of the myotubes with IL-6 for 24 h increased oleic acid oxidation but had no effect on glucose metabolism. Thus IL-6 did not mimic all the metabolic effects of the TLRLs, implying metabolic effects beyond the actions of this myokine.