«Det finnes en sang for alt!» Ansattes begrunnelser for sang i barnehage og skole – en empirisk studie
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This chapter is based on two studies which aim to provide knowledge about the position of singing in Norwegian kindergartens and schools: (a) a national quantitative cross-sectional survey with kindergarten teachers and primary school/lower secondary school teachers, and (b) case studies in selected kindergartens and schools, where the data collection consisted of participatory observation and interviews with leaders and teachers. The chapter presents an attempt to incorporate both studies into a triangulation design where different types of data material and different analysis methods (quantitative and qualitative) are combined to investigate the question “why sing?” – that is, how singing is justified in kindergarten and school. Furthermore, we ask if different views on the functions of singing correlate with teachers’ personal characteristics (e.g., educational background, musical expertise, age, gender) and with the extent to which teachers sing with their children/students. Theoretical perspectives are grounded in music education philosophy with emphasis on Øivind Varkøy’s (2015) justification categories. The results show that employees in Norwegian kindergartens and schools justify singing with several arguments that are placed within and across Varkøy’s categories. We find a clear consensus among the participants in our sample that singing is particularly relevant for extra-musical functions (e.g., learning a language, building a community). The least emphasized, however, are arguments connected with curricula and the development of the singing voice.