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dc.contributor.authorFjærvoll, Haakon Kristoffer Olsen
dc.contributor.authorFjærvoll, Ketil Andreas Olsen
dc.contributor.authorMagnø, Morten Scherven
dc.contributor.authorMoschowits, Emily
dc.contributor.authorVehof, Jelle
dc.contributor.authorDartt, Darlene A.
dc.contributor.authorUtheim, Tor Paaske
dc.identifier.citationActa Ophthalmologica. 2021, 1-19.en_US
dc.description.abstractBackground. Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tear film and ocular surface. It causes ocular symptoms, reduced quality of life and a considerable economic burden on society. Prolonged use of visual display terminals (VDTs) has been suggested as an important risk factor for DED. Purpose. This review aims to study the association between DED and VDT use with an emphasis on the prevalence of DED among VDT users and harmful daily duration of VDT use. Methods. A PubMed search was conducted and yielded 57 relevant articles based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were subclassified according to study design. Results. The far majority of the studies showed an association between VDT use and DED or DED-related signs and symptoms. The prevalence of definite or probable DED in VDT and office workers ranged from 26% to 70%, with as few as 1–2 hr of VDT exposure per day being associated with DED. Conclusion. VDT use is strongly associated with DED. VDT-associated DED is prevalent, but the exact prevalence needs to be further elucidated using standardized DED diagnosis criteria. Furthermore, a safe lower limit of daily VDT use has yet to be established. More research is needed on the effect of digitalization and digital transformation, which are particularly high during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was partly funded by NFR 271555 grant by the Norwegian Research Council, through the Medical Student Research Program. D.A. Dartt: NIH R01 EY019470, NIH R01 EY029789.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesActa Ophthalmologica;
dc.rightsNavngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectDry eye diseasesen_US
dc.subjectDaily VDT duration thresholdsen_US
dc.subjectVisual display terminalsen_US
dc.titleThe association between visual display terminal use and dry eye: a reviewen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.rights.holder© 2021 The Authors.en_US
dc.source.journalActa Ophthalmologicaen_US

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Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal