Vold og overgrep mot barn og unge
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- NOVA rapport 
7033 students in their last year of secondary school, from 67 schools all over the country, took part in the survey mainly about their experience with violence and sexual abuse (response rate 77 %). Within regular school hours, the participants answered a comprehensive questionnaire. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of three different offences against children and youth: Violence from own parents (direct violence), Experiences of violence against own parents (indirect violence), and Sexual abuse. In addition, the report focuses on risk factors for different kinds of offences and on consequences related to the three kinds of offences. The report offers new knowledge about young people's exposure to direct and indirect violence and sexual abuse. This is the first time the prevalence of direct and indirect violence has been assessed in a normal youth population of this size in Norway. It is also the first time sexual abuse and other violent offences are measured in the same survey. Prevalence of sexual abuse, direct and indirect violence The majority of the participants did not report any of the offences they were asked about. There is also great variety in the kinds of abusive and violent experiences the informants report. While relatively many informants had experienced at least one offence at some point in their lives, relatively few had experienced what we have defined as severe offences, and even fewer have experienced severe direct and indirect violence as well as severe sexual abuse. Direct physical violence from parentsMore than 80 % of the participants had never been hit intentionally by an adult member of their family. The majority of those having been hit by an adult family member had experienced such an event only once or a few times. Only 2 % reported frequent violence (hit more than 10 times). Mild violence (e.g. mild smacking, pushing, showing) from the mother was more frequent than mild violence from the father (19 and 13 %, respectively).Using other measures, we found that 25 % of the participants reported at least one incident of physical violence from one of their parents. Physical violence from both parents was reported by 7 %.The proportion that reported severe violence was considerably lower than the proportion that reported mild violence. 8 % reported severe violence from at least one of the parents. Only 2 % of the informants reported severe violence from both parents.More girls than boys reported mild violence from mothers than from fathers. For severe violence there was no such gender difference. Indirect violence 10 % of the participants had witnessed at least one incident of violence against one of their parents. The proportion having witnessed violence against both parents was considerably lower (2 %). In general, violence against mothers was more frequent than violence against fathers (respectively 9 and 4 %). This was also the case for severe violence (respectively 4 and 2 %) and for interparental violence (respectively 7 and 2 %) 2 % had witnessed severe interparental violence against the mother. Sexual abuse22 % of the girls and 8 % of the boys reported having experienced less severe forms of sexual abuse. More severe sexual offences were less common: 15 % of the girls and 7 % of the boys reported such experiences.Almost all offended girls reported that their offenders were male. Half of the offended boys reported that their offenders were female. More girls than boys reported the use of physical force in the offence. The proportion reporting an intrafamilial offender was very low for both genders; the majority of sexual offences took place outside the close family.About half of the offences were committed by a friend, boyfriend, girlfriend, or an acquaintance. About half of the offences took place between young people in their teens.9 % of the girls reported having experienced rape or attempted rape. Less than 1 % of the boys reported such experiences. The proportion reporting more than one incident of sexual abuse was considerably higher among girls than among boys. Multi-victimization16 % reported at least one severe offence (severe sexual abuse, severe direct violence from parents, or severe indirect violence).2 % reported at least one incident of severe sexual abuse, and at least one incident of severe direct or indirect violence. 0.5 % reported all three kinds of severe offences. Risk factors: Living conditions and genderPoor family economy, alcohol problems among adult family members, and minority background were associated with an increased risk of experiencing direct violence from parents, indirect violence, and sexual abuse.More girls than boys reported sexual abuse and mild physical violence from mothers. More girls than boys also reported exposure to indirect violence (against their mother). Revictimization Experiences of sexual abuse before the age of 13 increased the risk of both mild and severe sexual abuse after the age of 13. Mild violence from the mother and severe violence from the father increased the risk of both kinds of sexual offences after the age of 13. Severe violence from the mother increased the risk only for severe sexual offences.Severe sexual offences before the age of 13 increased the risk of both mild and severe violence from the mother after the age of 13. Mild sexual offences increased the risk only for severe violence.Mild violence from the mother and mild violence from the father before the age of 13 increased the risk of mild but not the risk of severe violence from the mother after the age of 13. Severe violence from the father increased the risk of both mild and severe violence from the mother after the age of 13. Consequences of sexual offences, violence, and witnessing violence Experiences of sexual abuse increased the risk of self-destructive behaviour (suicidal attempts, self-mutilation, eating disorders), behaviour problems, problems related to sexuality (early sexual debut, selling sex, multiple partners, forcing others to have sex), and psychological problems (poor self-image, anxiety, depression, dissociation).Severe violence from both parents increased the risk of depression. Severe violence from the father also increased the risk of eating disorders, anxiety, and dissociation. Severe violence from the mother increased the risk of suicidal attempts.Severe indirect violence where the father was the victim increased the risk of suicidal attempts, depression, and dissociation. The same results were found for severe indirect violence where the mother was the victim. Witnessing severe violence against the mother also increased the risk of reporting about anxiety. Geographical variation The differences in prevalence rates between regions for all forms of offences could be explained by differences in living conditions. Contact with welfare services Among the youth who reported severe offences, between 20 and 25 % had been in contact with Child Protection services, Child Psychiatry, or Pedagogical and Psychological services within the school system. The proportion of victims who reported having had contact with these services increased with an increasing number of offences. Among those who were the most severely victimized (reporting both severe incidents of direct violence, severe incidents of indirect violence, and severe sexual offences), more than 60 % had been in contact with at least one of the services mentioned. Child Protection Statistics The prevalence of physical violence and sexual offences as the reason for Child Protection measures, was clearly lower in the Child Protection statistics compared with the prevalence rates in the current study. One possible explanation of the difference is that incidents of sexual offences or violence have to be severe and enduring, rather than episodic, if they are to be valid as reason for intervention from the Child Protection services. The Child Protection statistics indicate a rather low level of education among the parents. The parents typically have low incomes, and many parents have depended on welfare or social security funding for a long period of time. Implications for preventive measures? The results from the study cannot provide any precise prescription for preventive measures. However, the results may contribute to identifying some areas in which such measures should take place. Two such areas are particularly clear: Firstly, people's living conditions, with a focus on poverty and alcohol and drug problems. Secondly, measures should also be directed towards the social structures that support gender related offences. We would also recommend a strong and persistent effort to develop the existing knowledge about sexual offences and violence, in order to get an informed and solid base for future preventive measures. The report is written in NorwegianRapporten presenterer viktig ny kunnskap om barn og unges utsatthet for seksuelle og voldelige krenkelser. Det er første gang omfanget av fysisk vold og vitneerfaringer er kartlagt i et normalbefolkningsutvalg av denne størrelsen. Det er også første gang omfanget av seksuelle overgrep ses i sammenheng med omfanget av andre typer krenkelser. Rapporten bygger på et omfattende datamateriale. I alt deltok 7033 avgangselever ved 67 videregående skoler i undersøkelsen. Elevene besvarte et spørreskjema i skoletiden, som i hovedsak handlet om tre former for krenkelser mot barn og unge: direkte vold fra egne foreldre, det å se eller høre vold som rammer egne foreldre og seksuelle overgrep. Rapporten fokuserer i tillegg på risikofaktorer knyttet til å oppleve ulike former for krenkelser, samt mulige konsekvenser knyttet til de tre nevnte typene krenkelser. Undersøkelsen bidrar dessuten til å identifisere viktige innsatsområder for forebyggende tiltak.Rapportens hovedkonklusjon er at de fleste norske ungdommer vokser opp uten å oppleve noen av de tre formene for krenkelser som vi kartla. Samtidig er det et ikke ubetydelig mindretall som opplever krenkelser av ulik art i løpet av oppveksten. Bildet av barn og unges utsatthet for vold og overgrep ser imidlertid forskjellig ut avhengig av om man ser på hele spekteret av krenkelser, eller om man avgrenser fokuset til grove krenkelser. Bildet kan oppsummeres slik: Relativt mange har opplevd en mild krenkelse i løpet av oppveksten, relativt få har opplevd det vi har definert som grove krenkelser og svært få har opplevd både grov vold, grove vitneerfaringer og grove seksuelle overgrep.