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dc.contributor.authorLøyland, Borghild
dc.contributor.authorSandbekken, Ida Hellum
dc.contributor.authorGrov, Ellen Karine
dc.contributor.authorUtne, Inger
dc.description.abstractBreast cancer affected more than 2.3 million women in 2022 and is the most diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. The incidence rates are greater in developed regions and are significantly higher among women with higher education and socioeconomic status. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the way women live their lives may impact their risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer. This systematic review aimed to identify what is known about the causes and risk factors of breast cancer, excluding genetic causes. A comprehensive systematic search identified 2387 systematic reviews, 122 were included and six overall themes identified. In our “top list” with the 36 most important findings, a study of breast density had the highest effect size for increasing the risk of breast cancer, and a high sex-hormone-binding globulin level was the most protective factor. Many of the included studies investigating the same topics had conflicting results. The conclusion from this evidence synthesis reveals a lack of consensus of factors associated with the causes and risk of breast cancer. These findings suggest that recommendations about lifestyle and breast cancer should be made with caution.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleCauses and Risk Factors of Breast Cancer, What Do We Know for Sure? An Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysesen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US

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