Prevalence and perinatal risk factors of parent-reported colic, abdominal pain and other pain or discomforts in infants until 3 months of age - A prospective cohort study in PreventADALL
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionJournal of Clinical Nursing (JCN). 2021, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.16097
Aims and objectives: To estimate the prevalence and perinatal risk factors associated with parent reported colic, abdominal pain and pain or other discomforts in infants until 3 months of age. Background: Infant colic is a common concern for parents and clinicians. The prevalence varies in different studies and its symptoms overlap with other conditions like abdominal pain and discomfort. Diagnosis criteria are challenging, pathogenesis unclear and risk factors are conflicting. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Methods: The 1852 mother–child pairs from the PreventADALL prospective birth-cohort answering the 3 months questionnaire were included. Information on perinatal risk factors was collected from the inclusion visit and questionnaires during pregnancy at 18 and 34 weeks, as well as birth charts. STROBE checklist was followed. Results: The reported prevalence of colic was 3% (59/1852), abdominal pain 22% (415/1852) and pain or other discomfort 6% (119/1852), with a total of 26% (478/1852) infants. Mothers on sick leave in pregnancy and reporting any allergic diseases had a significantly higher odds of reporting infant colic, abdominal pain and pain or other discomforts. Mothers with higher perceived stress in pregnancy exhibited a trend towards higher odds for reporting infant pain. Mothers coming from Sweden were less likely to report infant abdominal pain compared to mothers from Norway. Conclusions: The prevalence of abdominal pain and pain or other discomforts was higher than the prevalence of colic. Perinatal risk factors connected to maternal health were associated with all three symptoms. Relevance to clinical practice: Colic and abdominal pain are stressful, symptoms overlap and risk factors for both can be identified in pregnancy. Our study suggests that it is difficult for parents to distinguish among infant colic, abdominal pain and other pain or discomfort and some report two or all three symptoms. Identifying the perinatal risk factors associated with infant pain may help target and support parents.