Differences in Perceived Occupational Stress by Demographic Characteristics, of European Emergency Medical Services Personnel during the COVID-19 Virus Pandemic—An International Study
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionHealthcare. 2021, 9 (11), 1582-1591. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111582
Objectives: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought commercial, social, and economic consequences in every country that has experienced substantial SARS-CoV-2 infection rates. The complete change in the environment that took place due to the outbreak of the pandemic can lead to stressful situations, especially among healthcare personnel. Material and methods: The research were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic between the 27 March 2020 and the 20 April 2020. The research included 1984 employees of emergency medical systems in seven European countries. An internet-based questionnaire format was adopted for the study (ΩMc-Donald > 0.7). Results: The highest level of stress was experienced by personnel in the United Kingdom M = 4.03, and the lowest by Norwegian employees M = 2.89. High levels of stress were also experienced by nurses from Spain and Poland. Women actively working in the healthcare system during the pandemic experienced higher stress levels than men. Conclusions: Women working in European emergency medical systems are more vulnerable to work-related stress, while carrying out emergency medical procedures during the pandemic. Differences in the level of stress experienced while carrying out duties in pre-hospital conditions were only found among Spanish emergency medical system personnel.