Rapid or long-term employment? A Scandinavian comparative study of refugee integration policies and employment outcomes
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionHernes, Arendt, Andersson Joona, Tronstad KRT. Rapid or long-term employment? A Scandinavian comparative study of refugee integration policies and employment outcomes. Journal of European Public Policy. 2020 https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2020.1824011
Although many studies compare national integration policies, analyses connecting these policies to integration outcomes are rare. This study combines longitudinal analysis of employment outcomes for Scandinavian refugees, with analyses of integration measures and policies to explain these differences. Can different usages of integration measures explain cross-national differences in employment outcomes between genders and with increased residence time? Moreover, can the countries’ integration policies explain such differences? Our analyses show substantial cross-national differences. Danish male refugees are employed faster; however, Sweden catches up, and Norway surpasses Danish employment levels with increased residence time. Additionally, Norway has a substantially smaller gender gap in employment than Sweden and particularly Denmark. We demonstrate that different usages of integration measures may explain differences in outcomes. We conjecture that different policies regulating (1) financial benefits and (2) employment and self-sufficiency requirements for obtaining a secure legal status may reinforce differences in programme participation and employment patterns.