Race and 1918 influenza pandemic in the United States: A review of the literature
Journal article, Peer reviewed
MetadataVis full innførsel
OriginalversjonØkland H, Mamelund S. Race and 1918 influenza pandemic in the United States: A review of the literature . International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019;16(14) http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142487
During epidemics, the poorest part of the population usually suﬀers the most. Alfred Crosby noted that the norm changed during the 1918 inﬂuenza pandemic in the US: The black population (which were expected to have higher inﬂuenza morbidity and mortality) had lower morbidity and mortality than the white population during the autumn of 1918. Crosby’s explanation for this was that black people were more exposed to a mild spring/summer wave of inﬂuenza earlier that same year. In this paper, we review the literature from the pandemic of 1918 to better understand the crossover in the role of race on mortality. The literature has used insurance, military, survey, and routine notiﬁcation data. Results show that the black population had lower morbidity, and during September, October, and November, lower mortality but higher case fatality than the white population. The results also show that the black population had lower inﬂuenza morbidity prior to 1918. The reasons for lower morbidity among the black population both at baseline and during the herald and later waves in 1918 remain unclear. Results may imply that black people had a lower risk of developing the disease given exposure, but when they did get sick, they had a higher risk of dying.
SerieInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health;Volume 16, Issue 14
TidsskriftInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Med mindre annet er angitt, så er denne innførselen lisensiert som © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).