Masculinity through the Lens of the Introduction Program among Ethiopian Immigrant Men in Oslo: Work Inclusion
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Norwegian Introduction Program has been studied and understood fairly from the perspective of the female migrant. However, it is less understood how experience and perception of masculinity in an intersection with class status among immigrant men are expected to adjust or to be re-defined in the process of implementation of activation policies in Norway, and to what extent this experience shapes their feeling of work inclusion. Taking departure in a semi-structured interview of six Ethiopian men in Oslo, this thesis employs an intersectional approach to unpack different categories of ‘migrant men’ in the context of the Norwegian Introduction program in connection to work inclusion. It also adopts hegemonic as well as flexible and/or strategic masculinities to analysis how Ethiopian male immigrant informants re-adjust and renegotiate their former masculine construction and workplace gender identity through the Program. The finding of the study shows that although the Norwegian Introduction Program has created a feeling and sense of integration among all Ethiopian immigrant men, for some, it continuously questions their former construction of masculinities. Furthermore, the result of the study shows that through the facilitation of the Introduction Program obligatory internship, most informants display strategic “flexible” masculinities in the workplace. In conclusion, in the context of this study, I argue that Introduction benefit is served as a tool of motivation (sanction) for most Ethiopian informants’ men to be strategically ‘flexible’ with their gender identity by working in occupation consider as low status and feminine in their country of origin in order to fulfill aspect of their former masculine obligation: providing their family here or back home.