Paracrine Activity from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on in Vitro Wound Healing in Human Tympanic Membrane Keratinocytes
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionOng, H. T., Redmond, S. L., Marano, R. J., Atlas, M. D., von Unge, M., Aabel, P., & Dilley, R. J. (2017). Paracrine Activity from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on In Vitro Wound Healing in Human Tympanic Membrane Keratinocytes. Stem Cells Dev, 26(6), 405-418. doi:10.1089/scd.2016.0204 http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2016.0204
Stem cell therapies for tympanic membrane repair have shown initial experimental success using mesenchymal stem cells in rat models to promote healing; however, the mechanisms providing this benefit are not known. We investigated in vitro the paracrine effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on wound healing mechanisms for human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). ADSC conditioned media (CMADSC) were assessed for paracrine activity on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, with hypoxic conditions for ADSC culture used to generate contrasting effects on cytokine gene expression. Keratinocytes cultured in CMADSC showed a significant increase in cell number compared to serum-free cultures and further significant increases in hypoxic CMADSC. Assessment of ADSC gene expression on a cytokine array showed a range of wound healing cytokines expressed and under stringent hypoxic and serum-free conditions was upregulated (VEGF A, MMP9, Tissue Factor, PAI-1) or downregulated (CXCL5, CCL7, TNF-α). Several of these may contribute to the activity of conditioned media on the keratinocytes with potential applications in TM perforation repair. VEGFA protein was confirmed by immunoassay to be increased in conditioned media. Together with gene regulation associated with hypoxia in ADSCs, this study has provided several strong leads for a stem cell–derived approach to TM wound healing.