Secession of South Sudan : the voluntary and enforced social exclusion
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Sudan has recently separated into two states after a long history of conflict that transformed into severe war lasted for fifty years interrupted with few years of fragile peace. Sudan, as a multicultural, multi-religions, multi-ethnic and multi-linguistic, country, has its unique complexity with different social relations between these different components. With special regard to the recent humanitarian crisis took place only few years before secession in Darfur, which has been described as genocide. A prime aim of the this research is to assess and to determine whether the separation of Sudan into two countries is related to social exclusion and/or related social practices that took place among the peoples of Sudan. This research is based on literature review. Primary and secondary have been analyzed and discussed. Literature studied and data compared to assess the exclusion and inequalities. I have found that the selected dimensions of social exclusion, namely; social, socio-economic and political dimensions have a significant impact on the social exclusion processes in Sudan. All factors of social dimension of religion, language, ethnicity, stigma and slavery have a key role in increasing the social distance between Southern and Northern Sudan people. Comparison of reach, distribution and efficiency of education and health services between the two parts of the country showed a considerable variation between citizenship status of both Southerners and Northerners. The research findings showed that identity, power and wealth are closely connected with regard to social exclusion and they have a degree contributing to social exclusion processes. In conclusion, the overlapping and relational causes, factors, dynamics, indicators, forms and dimensions of social exclusion have influenced individuals in the end manifestation of social exclusion to vote in favor of secession instead of unity, which led to the secession of the country.
Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy