A SOCIAL ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON CANNABIS USE AMONG NORWEGIAN ADOLESCENTS - A multilevel study
Aim of the study: The main aim of this study is to explore the impact of the school-class on individual cannabis use, and the following research questions have been formulated; To what extent does the schoolclass influences individual cannabis use? Is the gender proportion in the school-class influencing individual cannabis use? Is the socioeconomic composition in a school-class influencing individual cannabis use? Theoretical perspective: The study applies the social ecological framework of Bronfenbrenner (1979) to conceptualise and structure the study to identify and discuss different levels of influence, and to empirically demonstrate the impact of school-class contextual factors on adolescent’s cannabis use. Methods: Quantitative multilevel analyses are employed to investigate the research questions. Data used in this study stem from the cross-sectional study Young in Oslo 2018, with an analytical sample of 5109 students at upper secondary school in Oslo, nested within 278 classrooms. Results: The use of cannabis is more widespread among boys, students at higher grade-levels and with a higher socioeconomic status. The intraclass correlation shows that 13.7 % of the variance in cannabis may be ascribed to the school-class. Moreover, the median odds ratio shows that if a student moves from a lower risk school-class to a higher risk school-class the probability of using cannabis almost doubles (MOR=1.99). A higher proportion of boys (OR=1.05), and students with a higher socioeconomic status (OR=1.11) at the school-class level increase the risk of individual cannabis use. Conclusion: A substantial part of the variance in cannabis use may be ascribed to the school-class level. A higher proportion of male students, and students with a higher socioeconomic status increase the risk of individual cannabis use. Results of the study support Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) theory that the individual is influenced by its context. Consequently, this study suggests preventative efforts should target the classroom-environment.
Søberg Isachsen, Martine