Increased protein intake affects pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) processing, immune function and IGF signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of home-dwelling old subjects using a genome-wide gene expression approach
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Original versionUlven S, Holven KB, Rundblad A, Flatberg A, Myhrstad MC, Karlsen, Mutt, Herzig K, Ottestad I, Gjevestad GOG. Increased protein intake affects proopiomelanocortin (POMC) processing, immune function and IGF signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of home-dwelling old subjects using a genome-wide gene expression approach. Genes & Nutrition. 2019;14(32) https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12263-019-0654-6
Background: Adequate protein intake among older adults is associated with better health outcomes such as immune function and metabolic regulation of skeletal muscle, but conflicting results make it difficult to define the optimal intake. To further understand the impact of protein intake on metabolic processes, the aim of the study was to explore genome-wide gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in homedwelling old subjects after increased protein intake for 12weeks. Method: In a parallel double-blind randomized controlled intervention study, subjects (≥ 70years) received a protein-enriched milk (2 × 20g protein/day, n = 14, mean (±SD) age 76.9 ± 4.9years) or an isocaloric carbohydrate drink (n = 17, mean (±SD) age 77.7 ± 4.8years) for breakfast and evening meal for 12weeks. PBMCs were isolated before and after the intervention. Microarray analysis was performed using Illumina technology. Serum levels of gut peptides and insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 were also measured. Results: In total 758 gene transcripts were regulated after increased protein intake, and 649 gene transcripts were regulated after intake of carbohydrates (p < 0.05). Forty-two of these genes were overlapping. After adjusting for multiple testing, 27 of the 758 gene transcripts were regulated (FDR, q-value < 0.25) after protein intake. Of these 25 were upregulated and two downregulated. In particular, genes and signaling pathways involved in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) processing, immune function, and IGF signaling were significantly altered. Conclusions: PBMCs can be used to study gene expression changes after long-term protein intake, as many signaling pathways were regulated after increased protein intake. The functional significance of these findings needs to be further investigated. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID no. NCT02218333. The study was registered on August 18, 2014.
SeriesGenes and Nutrition;14, Article number: 32 (2019)
JournalGenes & Nutrition
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