Språklæring hos barn
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Language acquisition is one of the most important skills for an individual to acquire, and make us independent of physical guidance and able to contribute effectively in society. Understanding the most effective ways to teach language skills to people with language deficits, is therefore of outmost importance. Article 1 is a review of the literature on language acquisition in children, with main focus on vocabulary. Several different theories on how children acquire language exist, and this article focus on three of them; behavior analytic theories, linguistic theories and developmental psychology. The development and relation between listener and speaker behavior is also discussed, in addition to naming and naming explosion. Normally, children acquire listener behavior prior to speaker behavior. Traditionally, listener behavior has therefore preceded speaker behavior, when teaching language skills. However, recent studies have implied that this is probably not the most effective sequence for teaching language. Article 2 is an empirical study of the transfer between listener behavior and impure tacts with four normally developed preschool children. It is a systematic replication of Wynn and Smith (2003). The participants underwent training with six words each, three as listener behavior and three as impure tacts. Following mastery during training, transfer to the other modality was tested. The results showed that the words trained as impure tacts was mastered first by half the participants, while the other half mastered the words trained as listener behavior first. The results also showed a higher percentage of transfer from impure tacts to listener behavior than the reverse, for all four participants. In addition, generalization across stimuli and setting was tested. These results replicate the results of other similar studies and indicate that it may be more, or at least equally effective, to teach impure tacts first. However, the topic need further research before any conclusions can be made.
Master i læring i komplekse systemer