On the relationship between component and composite multiplication skills and natural frequency growth
Article 2 is written together with linn tangen
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Mathematic proficiency is considered to be a fundamental basic skill, and poor mathematic skills may impact further education, which further could affect national wealth and growth. Results from international tests such as PISA and TIMSS shows that Norwegian students are not doing that well when it comes to do basic skills in arithmetic. Strategies such as the Knowledge promotion and Close to science studies have been implemented in the Norwegian education system in order to heighten the mathematical competence of the students, but these have not yet seen to be effective. Further are assessment of student proficiency level, and possible learning disabilities traditionally done through norm- and criterion-referenced achievement tests. These tests will rarely show what the potential learning disabilities are, nor will they point to interventions likely to be effective. One system that may facilitate a more preventive approach is Response to Intervention (RtI). RtI aims to be a preventive model through frequent monitoring of student performance, that generates information on potential problems in need of change in the academic environment. Curriculum Based Measurements (CBM) has been found to be highly effective in assessing student performance in reading and writing, and is the preferred measurement procedure in the RtI framework. Precision Teaching (PT) has also been recommended as a supplementary procedure given its frequent monitoring and focus on frequency building, and could as such have the function of both a frequent measurement procedure and as an effective intervention. For an RtI framework to implement effective interventions in mathematics, there is a need for establishing cutpoints or benchmark standards, which could predict further development in the transition from basic to more complex skills and over grade levels. The current study has examined the relationship between component and composite frequency and natural growth in basic multiplication in the grade levels 5–9, and is a systematic replication of Lin and Kubina (2005) with variations.
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