Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionGrewal, N.K., Andersen, L.F., Sellen, D.W., Mosdøl, A. & Torheim, L.E. (2015). Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey. Public Health Nutrition. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015001962 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015001962
Objective: To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices duringthe first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin.Design: A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013–February2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the secondNorwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006–2007.Setting: Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invitedto participate.Subjects: One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eightymothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated.Results: Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % ofNorwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breastfedat 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % ofNorwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 %and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % ofNorwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common amongNorwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %;P= 0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated withexclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated withbreast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2).Conclusions: Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somalibornmothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter thanrecommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for newculture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementaryfeeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.