• Concerns in the norwegian population during the initial lockdown due to the covid-19 pandemic 

      Bredal, Inger Schou; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine K.; Bonsaksen, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH);Volume 18 / Issue 11, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021-06-06)
      Although concern affects one’s welfare or happiness, few studies to date have focused on peoples’ concerns during the initial COVID-19 lockdown. The aim of the study was to explore concerns in the Norwegian populations ...
    • Concerns in the Norwegian population during the initial lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic 

      Bredal, Inger Schou; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Bonsaksen, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH);Volume 18, Issue 11, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021-06-06)
      Although concern affects one's welfare or happiness, few studies to date have focused on peoples' concerns during the initial COVID-19 lockdown. The aim of the study was to explore concerns in the Norwegian populations ...
    • Concerns related to the COVID-19 in adult Norwegians during the first outbreak in 2020: A qualitative approach 

      Skogstad, Laila; Bredal, Inger Schou; Bonsaksen, Tore; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Grimholt, Tine Kristin (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health;volume 18, issue 8, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021-04-19)
      Concerns related to the first outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Norwegian population are studied in a cross-sectional web-survey conducted between 8 April and 20 May 2020. The qualitative thematic analysis of the ...
    • Daily use of alcohol in the Norwegian general population: Prevalence and associated factors 

      Bonsaksen, Tore; Heir, Trond; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine K.; Ekeberg, Øivind; Lerdal, Anners; Schou-Bredal, Inger (Drugs and alcohol today;Volume 20, Issue 2, Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-04-29)
      Purpose: Harmful use of alcohol is a major public health problem. While harm is often researched in the context of heavy drinking episodes, high-frequency drinking, even when drinking moderate quantities, constitutes a ...
    • General self-efficacy in the Norwegian population: Differences and similarities between sociodemographic groups 

      Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Schou-Bredal, Inger (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Aims: General self-efficacy (GSE) refers to optimistic self-beliefs of being able to perform and control behaviors, and is linked with various physical and mental health outcomes. Measures of self-efficacy are commonly ...
    • Optimists report fewer physical and mental health conditions than pessimists in the general Norwegian population 

      Bredal, Inger Schou; Bonsaksen, Tore; Heir, Trond; Skogstad, Laila; Lerdal, Anners; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Ekeberg, Øivind (Health Psychology Report;7 (1), Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019-01-03)
      Background: Several studies have found that optimism is associated with better health. However, all those studies have investigated the subject in a specific context: gender, age group, diagnosis, situation, or population ...
    • Optimists’ and pessimists’ self-reported mental and global health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway 

      Bredal, Inger Schou; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Bonsaksen, Tore; Skogstad, Laila; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind (Health Psychology Report;, Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021-01-05)
      Background: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a global health crisis. How well people cope with this situation depends on many factors, including one’s personality, such as dispositional optimism. The aim of the study was ...
    • Personality traits and the risk of becominglonely in old age: A 5-year follow-up study 

      Ormstad, Heidi; Eilertsen, Grethe; Heir, Trond; Leiv, Sandvik (Health and Quality of Life Outcomes;18, Article number: 47 (2020), Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-02-20)
      Background: Although many people experience loneliness in old age, there is little knowledge of predisposing personality factors. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent personality traits are associated ...
    • Population-based norms of the Life Orientation Test–Revised (LOT-R) 

      Bredal, Inger Schou; Heir, Trond; Skogstad, Laila; Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Ekeberg, Øivind (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      Background/Objective: The most common used instrument to measure optimism, both in psychological and medical research, is the Life Orientation Test- Revised (LOT-R). A multi-countries study using the future item from the ...
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder and associated factors during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway 

      Bonsaksen, Tore; Heir, Trond; Bredal, Inger Schou; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine Kristin (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health;Volume 17, Issue 24, Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-12-09)
      The COVID-19 outbreak and the sudden lockdown of society in March 2020 had a large impact on people’s daily life and gave rise to concerns for the mental health in the general population. The aim of the study was to examine ...
    • Psychological responses and associated factors during the initial lockdown due to the corona disease epidemic (COVID-19) among Norwegian citizens 

      Bredal, Inger Schou; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Bonsaksen, Tore; Skogstad, Laila; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind (Journal of Mental Health;, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021-07-26)
      Background: Ongoing COVID-19 studies pay little attention to the risk or protective factors related to psychological stress. Aims: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety, depression and insomnia during the ...
    • Self-diagnosed depression in the Norwegian general population - associations with neuroticism, extraversion, optimism, and general self-efficacy 

      Bonsaksen, Tore; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Skogstad, Laila; Lerdal, Anners; Ekeberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond; Bredal, Inger Schou (BMC Public Health;18:1076, Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018-08-29)
      Background: Multi-item rating scales for depression informs about the level of depression, but does not allow individuals to state by self-evaluation whether they feel depressed or not. The insider perspective on depression ...
    • Self-evaluated anxiety in the Norwegian population: Prevalence and associated factors 

      Bonsaksen, Tore; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Lerdal, Anners; Skogstad, Laila; Bredal, Inger Schou (Archives of Public Health;77, Article number: 10 (2019), Journal article, 2019-03-18)
      Background: Self-evaluations of mental health problems may be a useful complement to diagnostic assessment, but are less frequently used. This study investigated the prevalence of self-evaluated current and lifetime anxiety ...
    • Self-rated global health in the Norwegian general population 

      Bonsaksen, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Heir, Trond; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Lerdal, Anners; Bredal, Inger Schou (Health and Quality of Life Outcomes;17, Article number: 188 (2019), Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019-12-09)
      Background. Prevalence studies are needed to assess the distribution of diseases. However, in a contrasting health promotion perspective, self-rated health is in itself an important field of study. This study investigated ...
    • Serious life events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Norwegian population 

      Heir, Trond; Bonsaksen, Tore; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Lerdal, Anners; Bredal, Inger Schou (BJPsych Open;5(e82), Journal article; Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Background It has been suggested that countries with more resources and better healthcare have populations with a higher risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Norway is a high-income country with good public ...
    • Sexual assault and the association with health, quality of life and self-efficacy in the general Norwegian population 

      Bredal, Inger Schou; Bonsaksen, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Lerdal, Anners; Heir, Trond (Journal of Interpersonal Violence;, Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-06-09)
      The lifetime prevalence of sexual assault was examined in a representative sample of the general Norwegian adult population (n¼1,792), in addition to the association between sexual assault and health, quality of life, ...
    • Substance use in the Norwegian general population: Prevalence and associations with disease 

      Bonsaksen, Tore; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine Kristin; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Lerdal, Anners; Bredal, Inger Schou (Journal of Substance Use;, Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-07-13)
      Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of substance use in the Norwegian general population and examine whether the risk of various psychiatric or somatic diseases varied according to alcohol- and substance ...
    • Suicide Thoughts and Attempts in the Norwegian General Population during the Early Stage of the COVID-19 Outbreak 

      Bonsaksen, Tore; Skogstad, Laila; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Bredal, Inger Schou; Grimholt, Tine Kristin (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health;Volume 18, Issue 8, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021-04-13)
      The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of suicide thoughts and attempts during the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak and examine pandemic-related factors associated with suicide thoughts in the general ...
    • Use of alcohol and addictive drugs during the COVID-19 outbreak in Norway: associations with mental health and pandemic-related problems 

      Bonsaksen, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Bredal, Inger Schou; Skogstad, Laila; Heir, Trond; Grimholt, Tine Kristin (Frontiers In Public Health;volume 9, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021-06-14)
      Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has had a major impact on people’s daily life. This study aimed to examine use of alcohol and addictive drugs during the COVID-19 outbreak in Norway and examine their association with ...