Deterioration in Muscle Mass and Physical Function Differs According to Weight loss History in Cancer Cachexia
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionStene GB, Balstad TR, Leer ASM, Bye A, Kaasa S, Fallon MT, Laird BJ, Maddocks M, Solheim TS. Deterioration in Muscle Mass and Physical Function Differs According to Weight loss History in Cancer Cachexia. Cancers. 2019;11(12) https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121925
Background: Muscle mass and physical function (PF) are common co-primary endpoints in cancer cachexia trials, but there is a lack of data on how these outcomes interact over time. The aim of this secondary analysis of data from a trial investigating multimodal intervention for cancer cachexia (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01419145) is to explore whether changes in muscle mass and PF are associated with weight loss and cachexia status at baseline. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a phase II randomized controlled trial including 46 patients with stage III–IV non-small cell lung cancer (n = 26) or inoperable pancreatic cancer (n = 20) due to commence chemotherapy. Cachexia status at baseline was classified according to international consensus. Muscle mass (assessed using computed tomography (CT)) and PF outcomes, i.e., Karnofsky performance status (KPS), self-reported PF (self-PF), handgrip strength (HGS), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and physical activity (PA), were measured at baseline and after six weeks. Results: When compared according to cachexia status at baseline, patients with no/pre-cachexia had a mean loss of muscle mass (−5.3 cm2, p = 0.020) but no statistically significant change in PF outcomes. Patients with cachexia also lost muscle mass but to a lesser extent (−2.8 cm2, p = 0.146), but demonstrated a statistically significant decline in PF; KPS (−3.8 points, p = 0.030), self-PF (−8.8 points, p = 0.027), and HGS (−2.7 kg, p = 0.026). Conclusions: Weight loss history and cachexia status at baseline are of importance if one aims to detect changes in PF outcomes in cancer cachexia trials. To improve the use of co-primary endpoints that include PF in future trials, outcomes that have the potential to detect change relative to weight loss should be investigated further.