Determining the Geographical Location of Image Scenes based on Object Shadow Lengths
Journal article, Peer reviewed
The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com u r l: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11265-010-0538-x
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Original versionSandnes, F. E. (2011). Determining the Geographical Location of Image Scenes based on Object Shadow Lengths. Journal of Signal Processing Systems, 65 (1), 35-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11265-010-0538-x
Many studies have addressed various applications of geo-spatial image tagging such as image retrieval, image organisation and browsing. Geo-spatial image tagging can be done manually or automatically with GPS enabled cameras that allow the current position of the photographer to be incorporated into the meta-data of an image. However, current GPS-equipment needs certain time to lock onto navigation satellites and these are therefore not suitable for spontaneous photography. Moreover, GPS units are still costly, energy hungry and not common in most digital cameras on sale. This study explores the potential of, and limitations associated with, extracting geo-spatial information from the image contents. The elevation of the sun is estimated indirectly from the contents of image collections by measuring the relative length of objects and their shadows in image scenes. The observed sun elevation and the creation time of the image is input into a celestial model to estimate the approximate geographical location of the photographer. The strategy is demonstrated on a set of manually measured photographs.