Genotypic characterization of gentamicin and cephalosporin 1 resistant Escherichia coli 2 isolates from blood cultures in a Norwegian university hospital 2011-2015
Background: Cephalosporin resistance in clinical E. coli isolates is increasing internationally. The increase has been caused by virulent and often multidrug-resistant clones, especially the extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli clone O25b-ST131. Methods: In Norway, recommended empirical treatment of sepsis consists of gentamicin and penicillin combined, or a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. To investigate if increased gentamicin and cephalosporins resistance rates in our hospital could be caused by specific clones, we conducted a retrospective study on E. coli blood culture isolates from 2011 through 2015. All E. coli isolates non-susceptible to gentamicin and/or third-generation cephalosporins were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and compared with antibiotic susceptible isolates. The frequency of the most common genes causing ESBL production (blaCTX-M, blaampC) was examined by Real-Time PCR. Results: A total of 158 cephalosporin and/or gentamicin resistant and 97 control isolates were differentiated into 126 unique MLVA types. Of these, 31% of the isolates belonged to a major MLVA cluster consisting of 41% of the gentamicin resistant and 35% of the cephalosporin resistant isolates. The majority (65/80 isolates) of this MLVA cluster contained MLVA types associated with the E. coli O25b-ST131 clone. Genes encoding CTX-M enzyme phylogroups 1 and 9 occurred in 65% and 19% of cephalosporin resistant isolates, respectively, whereas blaampC-CIT was identified in 3%. Conclusion: No local E. coli bacteraemia clone was identified. Antibiotic resistance was dispersed over a variety of genotypes. However, association with the international E. coli O25b-ST131 clone was frequent and may be an important driver behind increased resistance rates. Monitoring and preventing dissemination of these resistant clones are important for continued optimal treatment.
Fladberg, Øyvind Andreas
Aamot, Hege Vangstein
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